Painters and sculptors were of greater interest than musicians were when the arts entered fiction towards the end of the eighteenth century.
The theme of mis educating young musicians moved over to the novella, and soon flourished as serialized narration in music journals. Fiction about music became a key discourse about a music that had lost its voice. Interpreting instrumental music was not just a rational enterprise but inevitably also a creative venture, for which fiction seemed appropriate. Furthermore, fiction about music proved to be a good way to popularize and explain music for the new urban middle-class audience that had little or no music education. It coexisted with various non-fictional narratives about musicians, such as musical anecdotes, biographical narratives, travel narratives, and historical narratives, which used so frequently fictional and rhetorical means that the borderlines are difficult to draw.
Early music novels do not yet thematize the instrumental music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Heinrich von Ofterdingen is structured by songs and singers but its protagonist is a budding poet rather than a musician. Only in did an original French ms come to light which has since served as the standard version. He expects his son to make a career that would provide for him in old age. The satire sharpens when the father takes his son on a tour to enchant some rich music lovers.
He consents to accompany his father to the court of a rich Polish nobleman near Warsaw, where a highly talented young musician would become his mentor. The Wunderkind is exposed on the way to rural savagery, to Church corruption, to impoverished whimsical noblemen, and to Danzig decadence. Reichardt satirizes the authoritarian paternal education of young musicians, which was widespread in the second half of the eighteenth century and beyond. Mozart and Beethoven also had dominating fathers.
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Three days later, Schumann witnessed how Wieck cruelly mistreated his son for messing up his piano playing. Similarly devastating is the satirical description of how the little boy had to be lifted unto a table to be seen when playing a silly popular song to an ecstatic audience While great generals would sometimes have to sleep in open fields on straw, a virtuoso could always stretch himself in a silken bed until noon Aware of this public image of virtuoso musicians, he regularly introduces his son as spoiled by kings and emperors He loses his way only temporarily, when he concentrates on full harmony and exact rhythm at the cost of song and expression His music education follows Rousseau, who placed melody, voice, and song above harmony and instruments.
Reichardt held on to these preferences, and could not do much with the new sonatas and symphonies. Her tutor Lockmann, a young bourgeois conductor, observes her naked from a distance upon arrival, leads endless discussions with her family about music and its history, but is incapable of exploiting his occasional chances to fire up her sensuous body. Hoffmann remarked that Lockmann is rather indecently enamored with his aristocratic student but he lectures her so pedantically about the mathematics of musicology that one cannot understand how she could tolerate him Hoffmann, The strict imitation of nature that Heinse expects from all the arts inevitably leads to a subordination of music to language.
Everybody in the novel admires Italian vocal music, mostly of the eighteenth century. What it is supposed to mean remains unsaid, and when it is said, seldom can another, save the composer, say wherein it is to be found. A battle cry of crusaders Novalis,  — is set against the laments of the captive Zulima —35 , followed by songs of a miner —50 , of a hermit —55, —75, —24 , of Schwaning —74 , and the drinking song of Klingsohr — The ubiquity of songs in Ofterdingen is striking, because, as I have demonstrated elsewhere Neubauer, , Novalis developed in his theoretical notes a concept of combinatorial mathematical music and transferred this to poetry, which was the first adaptation of instrumental music to poetry.
Let me note here merely that abstract structuring is a key feature of Ofterdingen as well, for Novalis gives very little attention to realistic details and descriptions. Not the external physical world but contrasting internal dispositions are at the heart of the novel, which is indicated also by the reduced significance of narrator texts. The bulk of the texture consists of dialogues and embedded songs as well as stories that are often fairy tales.https://exomrehyd.tk
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Instrumental music manifests itself in the very structure of the novel, which can be characterized as a musical texture of conversation Neubauer, — I know of no other novel that would embody so powerfully a contrast between vocal and instrumental conceptions of music — without ever making this a subject of critical reflection. Written probably in —62 and —74, it remained an obscure manuscript until Goethe published his German translation in Foucault noted in his Histoire de la folie that the attitude towards madness underwent a fundamental change between its writing and first publication: The eighteenth century could not exactly understand the meaning expressed in Le Neveu de Rameau.
Yet something had happened, just when the text was written, which promised a decisive change. A curious thing: the unreason that had been relegated to the distance of confinement reappeared, fraught with new dangers and as if endowed with a new power of interrogation. He distinguished between two forms of new music: the first, independent one develops and realizes itself from within.
It is for the external refined senses, composed by Italians. Italian music was, for him, in a special sense autonomous. The second one involves intellect, sensitivity, and passion, and is composed by the French, the Germans, and all the Nordic countries However, in one of the paragraphs that follow this typology, Goethe does regard instrumental music as German.
Moi wants to stem the tide of disintegrating values and beliefs, yet he is repeatedly compelled to admit that the scintillating lui is often right and uses a powerful rhetoric even when he is wrong.
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Lui is a sycophant who performs questionable services for the rich in order to profit from their dinners and other favors. He is unable and unwilling to be self-sufficient, but uncovers the rotten underbelly of pre-revolutionary French society; he questions the notion of artistic genius, and he parodies the music of the time by miming, mixing, and performing it in grotesque ways. Nevertheless, I must indicate its main features because it is at the very heart of the German adaptations and it raises basic questions about the frequent association of music with madness.
Lui is in more than one way an inversion of the genius composer of romantic fiction. Diderot did not like the uncle in real life either. His genius seems to lie in enacting grotesque parodies. He might have to be put into a cab and be taken to a padded cell. Did I admire him?
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Yes, I did. Was I moved and compassionate? I was moved and compassionate, though a derisive streak merged into these feelings and deprived them of their naturalness. His sharp observations and his cynical criticism of Parisian society are so much to the point that moi is reduced to short utterances of approval: he is right and his remarks show reason. The momentary lunacy of his performance is so contagious that it sweeps the spectators and listeners from their feet, so that they all, including moi, come to share his madness.
They remain compassionate, but detached observers. I have decided to include it here, not just because it is an important adaptation of Le neveu. By he found himself under enormous internal and external pressure to fulfill his promise. His friend Niethammer guaranteed the publisher in a written contract that he would personally pay for the printing if Hegel failed to submit the manuscript by October 18, , and Hegel submitted the first half of the manuscript on October 8. However, in the next days Napoleon soundly defeated the Prussians in the Battle of Jena and occupied the city.
The unacknowledged father, Diderot, became there the crucial voice. Studies on Hegel have generally neglected his adaptation of Le neveu. The matter needs interpretation. See also Mougin and Stiehler It will not be able to refrain from entering into these tones, and from running up and down the entire scale of feelings from the profoundest contempt and dejection to the highest admiration and emotion.
Was Diderot or moi in Le neveu a master of a dialogical discourse that marshals all voices towards his final truth? Hegel thus converts a Bakhtinian dialogical text into a dialectical one. Relatively little. Hegel uses Le neveu basically to establish general historical diagnoses based on the lui figure, but he focuses on passages where lui grotesquely performs music, and disregards his cynical social criticism.
He does imitate some instruments, but is primarily concerned with the human voice. Hegel never developed a love and a rationale for the instrumental music that was up and coming when Diderot wrote his Le neveu. From Poetry to Music Novels 63 the human form i: 84— This perfect classic harmony of Idea and embodiment is destroyed, however, in the romantic art forms starting with the Middle Ages , because the advanced spirit can no longer find adequate expression in the concrete sensuous object of the external world.
As a result, external existence becomes contingent. In the developing absolute sphere of the spirit, art can no longer serve as an adequate expression. The main question becomes then how Hegel defines music against the other arts, and how he perceives the music of his time in light of his historical scheme.
While architecture and the fine arts are spatial and object-related, music is essentially temporal and intimately subject-centered. Compared to the materials of the fine arts, musical sounds are quite abstract Hegel,  , ii: , and this abstraction became further pronounced when the musical sounds had cut their association with language and made themselves independent. Music offers the possibility to give up not only verbal reference but reference altogether. For Hegel this was a loss rather than gain, for he regarded pure sounds as spiritually empty signs that have no hold on inwardness.
Hegel gives little attention to it, partly because he believes that only experts understand its structure, whereas vocal music is accessible to a wide audience of laypersons. Though music has its own rules, Hegel fears that uncoupling it from language leads to arbitrariness, of wild and irregular breaks ii: — It did, namely in his criticism of the accompaniment of operas or church music Hegel,  , ii: — It expresses, for instance, cheerfulness, wedding, glittering feasts, and presses into it also hatred, revenge, and animosity, so that next to pleasure, happiness, and dance music simultaneous heavy quarrels and most nauseous divisions rage.
Probably not, but the passage shows that what he read earlier as a general alienation of the spirit later became a specific objection to much early nineteenth-century music.
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Seeking unity and order, Hegel attributed to melody a crucial integrating force, which must be sustained and never allowed to disintegrate into conflicting fragments, especially since music, among all the arts, is most prone to fragmentation ii: — Peace of mind or rather spirit is what characterizes 8 Johnson I agree with Johnson that such music is static and unsuited to emotional dynamics. On the Affektenlehre see Neubauer, 51— It comes therefore as a surprise that in Ritter Gluck the most important performed music of his operas consists of instrumental music.
As we shall see, the question can be answered with both yes and no. Scher and Weisstein have illuminated aspects of the family connection. Scher has assembled a battery 9 The exceptions are when the Ritter innovatively sings the chorus from Iphigenie in Tauris and the final scene of Armida Hoffmann, , i: 12, He accompanies their performance with a pantomime.
Subsequently he tells the narrator a myth of musical redemption but abruptly breaks it off and disappears. As Christa Karoli notes , critics have offered two main resolutions of the puzzle: most regard the Ritter a psychotic impersonator, while some consider him a revenant. Since Hoffmann is always ambiguous about the supernatural, the revenant-interpretation cannot be substantiated. Better to say that the Ritter is in one way a parasite on the historical Gluck, much as the nephew is on Rameau. The Ritter is thus an inauthentic supplement, and this already undermines the authenticity of the strange monologue he tells about composing and his aesthetic vision.
Look at the sun: it is the triad from which the chords shoot down like stars and enshroud you with threads of fire. The triadic chord that shoots out of the sun is wordless but the visual threads prevent calling it absolute. Ritter follows this myth of musical transfiguration with an account of his own experiences. The wordless sounds are continually linked to images, which consistently limit the creative power of music. Sometimes, while both hands were working at artful melismas, he would sing the theme with a pleasant tenor voice.
Then, he knew in a remarkable way to imitate the muffled sound of the kettledrum. Yet, though the performance is more original than performances read from the score, it remains one of mimesis and repetition. How does that actually work? Softly moving his left foot, he marked the entry of the voices. He raised his head — quickly glanced around — and he raised his right hand, while his left one rested with spread fingers on the table as if he were playing a chord on a piano. He was a conductor indicating the orchestra a new tempo — his right hand drops and the allegro begins!